Joao Santos - Autodesk AutoCAD 2013 Practical 3D Drafting and Design

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Joao Santos - Autodesk AutoCAD 2013 Practical 3D Drafting and Design

Autodesk AutoCAD 2013 Practical 3D Drafting and Design

Take your AuotoCAD design skills to the next dimension by creating powerful 3D models

Год: 2013

Автор: João Santos

Жанр: CG Engineering

Издательство: Packt Publishing

ISBN: 978-1-84969-935-8

Язык: Английский

Формат: PDF

Качество: Изначально компьютерное (eBook)

Интерактивное оглавление: Да

Количество страниц: 374

Описание: Autodesk AutoCAD is, by far, the most used CAD software all around the world. In 2D it includes a large number of commands and functions, which makes it virtually unbeatable for many years. With continuous hardware development, together with new software capabilities, 3D became a viable and accessible technology to all. It is much better to simulate the real world with 3D models than to apply 2D drawings. 3D modeling has countless advantages: real-world simulation, greater accuracy, cheaper models, easy creation of related 2D drawings, calculation of volume and other properties, detection of interferences, model transfer to 3D printers or CAM/CNC devices, realistic visualization with light and materials application, sun studies, material selection, and easier comparison between solutions. With Version 2007, AutoCAD became a reliable software for 3D modeling in all technical areas, such as architecture, engineering, construction, roads, urban studies, landscaping, and scenarios. Rendering and realistic results were quite improved in Version 2011, with the introduction of Autodesk Materials and the inclusion of more than 700 excellent-looking and ready-to-apply materials, as demonstrated on the cover of this book. Autodesk AutoCAD 2013 3D Drafting and Design allows you to break the 2D frontier and create accurate 3D models that simulate reality. With the addition of lights and materials, simulation is taken to the level of photorealism. Including several explained exercises, this book is an easy learning tool and also a reference manual for daily consultation.

Preface 1

Chapter 1: Introduction to 3D Design 7

The Z coordinate 8

Absolute coordinates 8

Relative coordinates 9

Point filters 10

Workspaces 11

Classic environment 11

Ribbon environment 12

Layers, transparency, and other properties 13

Layers 13

Transparency 14

Visibility 14

Auxiliary tools 15

OSNAP, ORTHO, POLAR, and OTRACK auxiliary tools 15

3DOsnap tool 17

Exercise 1.1 17

Application of 2D commands 18

Drawing commands 19

Editing commands 19

Other entities and commands 20

Exercise 1.2 21

Linear 3D entities 22

Thickness 22

3D polylines 23

Splines and helixes 24

How to create great 3D models 27

Summary 28

Table of Contents

[ ii ]

Chapter 2: Visualizing 3D Models 29

Zooming, panning, and orbiting 29

Zooming and panning 30

Orbiting the model 30

Automatic orbit 31

The 3DORBIT command 31

Other orbiting commands 32

Exercise 2.1 33

Views and cameras 34

Predefined views 34

View cube 34

Ribbon and toolbar access 35

The Viewport controls 36

The PLAN command 36

The VPOINT and DDVPOINT commands 36

Creating views 37

The Perspective view 38

Cameras 39

The camera's creation 39

The camera's visualization and properties 39

The camera's activation 41

Exercise 2.2 41

Visual styles 44

Applying visual styles 44

Creating and modifying visual styles 46

Exercise 2.3 47

Walking and flying in a 3D model 49

Walking and flying 49

Settings 50

Exercise 2.4 50

Viewports 51

Viewport controls 52

Working with multiple viewports 52

Exercise 2.5 54

Summary 55

Chapter 3: Coordinate Systems 57

User coordinate systems 57

The world coordinate system 57

Creating user coordinate systems 58

The UCS command 58

Creating a UCS by moving and orienting the icon 61

Important variables to know 61

Table of Contents

[ iii ]

Exercise 3.1 62

Managing user coordinate systems 65

The UCSMAN command 65

Dynamic coordinate systems 66

Creation of dynamic coordinate systems 66

Exercise 3.2 66

UCS icons 68

Identifying UCS icons 68

Modifying the UCS icon 68

Summary 70

Chapter 4: Creating Solids and Surfaces from 2D 71

Creating solids or surfaces 71

Creating solids and surfaces by extrusion 72

Extruding 2D objects 72

The EXTRUDE command 73

EXTRUDE applied to faces and edges 74

Exercise 4.1 75

Creating solids from closed areas or faces 78

The PRESSPULL command 78

PRESSPULL applied to faces 79

Exercise 4.2 79

Creating solids and surfaces by revolution 80

The REVOLVE command 80

Exercise 4.3 82

Creating solids and surfaces with different sections 83

The LOFT command 83

Exercise 4.4 86

Creating solids and surfaces along a path 88

The SWEEP command 88

Exercise 4.5 90

Exercise 4.6 91

Important variables for solids and surfaces 92

Summary 94

Chapter 5: 3D Primitives and Conversions 95

3D solid primitives 95

Creating boxes and wedges 96

The BOX command 97

The WEDGE command 98

Exercise 5.1 99

Creating cylinders and cones 101

The CYLINDER command 101

The CONE command 102

Table of Contents

[ iv ]

Exercise 5.2 104

Creating spheres 105

The SPHERE command 105

Creating 3D donuts 106

The TORUS command 107

Exercise 5.3 108

Creating pyramids 109

The PYRAMID command 109

Creating walls 111

The POLYSOLID command 111

Exercise 5.4 113

Primitive surfaces 114

Creating planar surfaces 115

The PLANESURF command 115

Conversions between 3D objects 116

Converting objects to solids 116

The CONVTOSOLID command 116

Converting objects to surfaces 117

The CONVTOSURFACE command 117

Summary 118

Chapter 6: Editing in 3D 119

3D editing commands 119

Rotating in 3D 120

The ROTATE3D command 120

The 3DROTATE command 122

Exercise 6.1 123

Mirroring in 3D 124

The MIRROR3D command 125

Multiple copies 126

The 3DARRAY command 126

Exercise 6.2 128

Aligning objects 130

The ALIGN command 130

The 3DALIGN command 132

Exercise 6.3 133

Moving objects 135

The 3DMOVE command 135

Scaling objects 136

The 3DSCALE command 136

Editing with grips 137

Editing subobjects 138

Summary 139

Table of Contents

[ v ]

Chapter 7: Editing Solids and Surfaces 141

Composite objects 141

Unions, subtractions, and intersections 141

The UNION command 142

The SUBTRACT command 143

The INTERSECT command 144

Editing composite objects 144

The BREP command 145

Exercise 7.1 146

Exercise 7.2 147

Cutting objects 148

Cutting solids and surfaces 148

The SLICE command 148

Exercise 7.3 150

Filleting and chamfering 150

Applying fillets 150

The FILLET command 150

The FILLETEDGE command 152

Applying chamfers 153

The CHAMFER command 154

The CHAMFEREDGE command 155

Exercise 7.4 156

Editing solids and surfaces 157

Changing parameters 158

The PROPERTIES command 158

The QUICKPROPERTIES command 158

Operations with faces, edges, and volumes of solids 159

The SOLIDEDIT command 159

Exercise 7.5 165

Creating linear objects from 3D 167

The OFFSETEDGE command 168

The SURFEXTRACTCURVE command 169

Projecting linear objects 170

The PROJECTGEOMETRY command 170

The IMPRINT command 171

Exercise 7.6 171

Editing surfaces 172

The THICKEN command 172

Summary 173

Chapter 8: Inquiring the 3D model 175

Measuring points, distances, and angles 175

Obtaining point coordinates 176

The ID command 176

Table of Contents

[ vi ]

Measuring distances and angles 176

The DIST command 176

The MEASUREGEOM command 178

Exercise 8.1 178

Interferences 180

Detecting interferences and creating solids with a common volume 180

The INTERFERE command 180

Exercise 8.2 182

Volumes and other properties 183

Obtaining volumes and other geometric properties 183

The MASSPROP command 183

Exercise 8.3 185

Summary 186

Chapter 9: Documenting a 3D Model 187

Creating 2D drawings from 3D models 187

Layouts 188

Creating and configuring layouts 189

Shortcut menu 189

The LAYOUT command 190

The PAGESETUP command 191

Creating viewports and adjusting scales 193

The MVIEW command 193

Adjusting views 194

Viewport scales 195

The SCALELISTEDIT command 196

Plot styles 197

Layer properties per viewport 198

Freezing layers per viewport 198

The LAYER command 198

Previewing and printing 199

The PREVIEW command 199

The PLOT command 199

Exercise 9.1 199

Views and sections 202

Sections 202

The SECTIONPLANE command 202

The SECTION command 205

Exercise 9.2 206

Projections and flattened views 207

The FLATSHOT command 208

Exercise 9.3 209

Associative views 210

Access and automatic layers creation 210

Table of Contents

[ vii ]

Base and projection views 211

The VIEWBASE command 211

The VIEWPROJ command 214

The VIEWEDIT command 215

The VIEWSTD command 216

The VIEWUPDATE command 217

Section and detail views 217

The VIEWSECTION command 217

The VIEWSECTIONSTYLE command 219

The VIEWCOMPONENT command 220

The VIEWDETAIL command 221

The VIEWDETAILSTYLE command 222

Other commands 223

Exercise 9.4 223

Summary 226

Chapter 10: Rendering and Illumination 227

Rendering concepts and commands 227

General concepts 227

Access to commands 229

Rendering commands 229

The RENDER command 229

The RENDERWIN command 231

The RENDERCROP command 232

The SAVEIMG command 232

The RPREF command 233

The RENDERPRESETS command 236

Exercise 10.1 236

Scene illumination 238

Default lighting 238

Generic and photometric lighting 238

Sun light and sky light 239

The SUNPROPERTIES command 239

The GEOGRAPHICLOCATION command 241

Exercise 10.2 243

Point lights 245

The POINTLIGHT command 245

The TARGETPOINT command 246

Spot lights 246

The SPOTLIGHT command 247

The FREESPOT command 248

Other lights 248

The DISTANTLIGHT command 249

The WEBLIGHT command 249

The FREEWEB command 250

Table of Contents

[ viii ]

Other lighting commands 250

The LIGHTLIST command 250

The RENDEREXPOSURE command 251

The CONVERTOLDLIGHTS command 253

Exercise 10.3 253

Summary 255

Chapter 11: Materials and Effects 257

Introduction to materials, textures, and effects 257

Materials and textures 258

Autodesk Material Library 258

Managing materials and libraries 260

The MATBROWSEROPEN command 260

Assigning materials 263

The MATERIALATTACH command 264

The MATERIALASSIGN command 264

Exercise 11.1 264

Creating and editing materials 265

The MATEDITOROPEN command 265

Images and other textures/maps 272

Exercise 11.2 280

Mapping coordinates 284

The MATERIALMAP command 284

Exercise 11.3 285

Effects 287

Backgrounds 287

The BACKGROUND command 288

Fog and depth cue 289

The RENDERENVIRONMENT command 290

Summary 291

Chapter 12: Meshes and Surfaces 293

Procedural surfaces 294

Access to commands 294

Creating surfaces from linear objects and by conversion 295

The SURFNETWORK command 297

Creating surfaces from other surfaces 297

Continuity and bulge 297

The SURFBLEND command 298

The SURFPATCH command 299

The SURFEXTEND command 300

The SURFOFFSET command 301

The SURFFILLET command 302

Editing surfaces 303

The SURFTRIM command 303

The SURFUNTRIM command 304

Table of Contents

[ ix ]

Exercise 12.1 305

Creating solids from surfaces 306

The SURFSCULPT command 306

Exercise 12.2 307

NURBS surfaces 308

Creating NURBS surfaces 308

The SURFACEMODELINGMODE variable 308

The CONVTONURBS command 309

Editing NURBS surfaces 309

The 3DEDITBAR command 309

The CVSHOW command 310

The CVHIDE command 310

The CVADD command 311

The CVREMOVE command 311

The CVREBUILD command 312

Exercise 12.3 313

Meshes 314

Access to commands 314

Creating primitive meshes 315

The MESH command 315

The MESHPRIMITIVEOPTIONS command 316

Creating meshes from linear objects 317

The RULESURF command 317

The TABSURF command 318

The REVSURF command 318

The EDGESURF command 320

Creating meshes by converting objects 320

The MESHSMOOTH and CONVTOMESH commands 320

The MESHOPTIONS command 321

Editing meshes 322

The MESHEXTRUDE command 322

The MESHSCAP command 324

The MESHSMOOTHMORE command 324

The MESHSMOOTHLESS command 325

The MESHCREASE command 325

The MESHUNCREASE command 326

The MESHREFINE command 326

The MESHMERGE command 327

The MESHCOLLAPSE command 327

The MESHSPLIT command 327

The MESHSPIN command 328

Polyface meshes 328

Creating polyface meshes 328

The 3DFACE command 329

The 3DMESH command 330

The PFACE command 330

The 3D command 331

Table of Contents

[ x ]

Editing polyface meshes 331

Surface analysis 331

Types of analysis and commands 332

The ANALYSISZEBRA command 332

The ANALYSISCURVATURE command 332

The ANALYSISDRAFT command 332

The ANALYSISOPTIONS command 333

Summary 334

Appendix: Final Considerations 337

Advanced concepts and clues for development 337

Animation 337

The ANIPATH command 337

Connecting to other programs 339

Typical 3D import and export formats 339

Exporting to 3ds Max 340

Exporting to Revit 341

Clues for development 341

Index 343

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